Immediately after the Second World War started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany in September , his father was arrested by the Germans for publishing a Polish newspaper without permission of the just-installed German occupations authorities. Soon afterwards, in the winter of , his mother, unable to cope without her partner and father of her sons, died. In February , his father, who was one of the first prisoners of Auschwitz-Birkenau , died there of illness and exhaustion. Official cause of his death was pneumonia. His ashes were sent by the German authorities to his sons for the burial. He was going to stay abroad, but eventually he made up his mind to go back to Poland.
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Literature distributed on stickers is a form of writing that is divided into small fragments of texts a type of constrained writ- ing , physically scattered in different locations.
One of the newest challenges in literature are books with augmented reality, AR, which examine the relation be- tween the physical the medium and the virtual interaction. Sticker literature is a rather simple analogue form of augmented reality literature. The medium is even more varied and nuanced. The viewer can read other parts of the text on photographs the photograph being another medium of other stickers placed in different locations. The author will discuss the use of stickers throughout literary history, beginning with 20th century French situationists, through different tex- tual strategies applied by visual artists and ending with literary forms such as the Polish sticker biography Stoberskiade The author shall try to explain why experimental writers decide to use this form, discuss how the text is distributed and received and how the city space is used in such projects.
This text consists of the report about the implementation of the project. While describing the idea behind the project and its production, I am also inves- tigating remediation and the fragmentation of the narrative in the digital age, as well as its scattered presence, participation of different media in telling a story and the participatory culture. Stoberskiade can be treated as a part of the artistic and academic project which I am conducting with several other people using the lab work model.
Stoberskiade can also be perceived as experimental writing in the 21st century, by which I understand a kind of academic research that examines the limitations of the literary expression.
Strongly associated with modernity, it implies rejection of hide-bound traditions, values and forms. To call litera- ture experimental in some sense to aspire to compete with science. The work was produced in Krakow by the Korporacja Ha! Focus on a practical approach, develop- ing technical skills as well as treating the university as a place for produc- ing not only knowledge, but also artefacts, objects, applications or literary works — those were the most important differences between the research model I was familiar with and the one that I was just learning about.
I also soon realized that most American scholars have artistic affilia- tions, seeing the works they produce as a kind of experiments, as well as a part of their academic practice — which is interesting and rarely seen in Poland. The atmosphere in the Trope Tank itself has provided a good environment for this, with place for the scholars, artists, writers and pro- grammers. The place and the people creating it all encouraged the team work.
The lab organized meetings dedicated to coding and interactive fic- tion, as well as lectures by people connected to the Electronic Literature Organization. It is also worth mentioning the huge impact that just reading the rel- evant books had on a scholar from Central Europe.
When I look at this work from the perspective of a few years, I believe that it is also a record of fascination with the texts read for the first time, about the narration in the digital age and the materiality of texts, that previously were simply unavail- able for me; they were a part of the equipment of the lab, or the Hayden Library at the MIT.
I myself have also put the stickers up in various places in the United States and later on other continents. However, it also contains elements of the academic essay, the purpose of which is to put the work in context by comparing it with several other projects that use similar methods.
Derivative Writing The material solution that I used — stickers as a medium for the text — is connected to one of the digital strategies of writing, which was called derivative writing by Janez Strehovec.
This Slovenian scholar uses new forms of expression to describe the strategies applied in the electronic lit- erature field, while also using methods known in the social sciences e. Strehovec assumes that in the contemporary economics mar- kets are extremely unstable, having no basis in the real value of the items purchased and sold by subjects. Stre- hovec does not perceive such activities in a negative light, or as imitation.
In his opinion, they are the effects of the lack of stability and uncertainty in the field. While creating Stoberskiade, I consciously referenced the idea of de- rivative writing, but the reference point for my own derivation were not the famous masterpieces by Lem or Kafka, but the creators of the unstable field of e-lit: Scott Rettberg, co-founder of the electronic literature field, and Nick Montfort, president of the Electronic Literature Organization and creator of The Trope Tank also, my mentor at the time, who taught me the writing techniques and methods of researching the digital culture and platforms.
Instead of a classical work I chose Implementation as a refer- ence point — Implementation is a lesser known experimental novel written on stickers that exist online and are put up in various places around the world, and that are mentioned in academic papers.
In my research, as well as in the practical and laboratory works, I focus on the phenomena of decentering in digital media, highlighting the hege- mony of the English language and the western technology in the digital media field.
Stoberskiade — as a work created in the polemics about the hegemonic practices of the imperial world and the English world used in Implementation — can also be included in this area of interest.
According to contemporary scholars, the material platform of a text is now seen as a significant aspect of a literary work. Describing the content and the text itself, one should also focus on the technical and material conditions of the medium. Therefore, N. Current spatial approaches to literature e. Take any form and project it onto any sur- face. Earrings can be billboards, tables can be screens, buildings can be magazines. Using stickers means, above all, an intervention in the public space.
According to the definition, a sticker is a small piece of printed paper, self-adhesive on one side. It is also a kind of label usually used to create object identification through a word, idea or image. However, in capital- ism, stickers can also have an ambiguous meaning; on the one hand, they are signs to promote and identify a product; on the other hand, they may be a subversive and effective way to fight a system such as capitalism.
Predominantly, stickers are attached to public spaces, generally without permission, which is why they are treated as vandalism. They are placed in heavily populated areas as well as in and on buses, trains mainly near their doors to be better seen , cars and other vehicles, bikes, tunnels, road signs, dumpsters, suitcases and public toilets. Artists started viewing stickers as a platform for their work at the be- ginning of the 20th century.
The Dada movement, considered to be the first avant-garde formation, distributed its works on stickers, which was part of how it explored new forms of expanding writing techniques. Therefore, the history of stickers in the 20th and 21st centuries can be seen as a history of subversive and oppositional strat- egies.
When used in this way, stickers speak against totalitarianisms e. Nazism and communism in Poland , the society of the spectacle Western Europe , or American imperialism. Wherever one can find oppression or abuse in society, a public intervention such as stickers can be used to ex- press independence, struggle and everyday revolution. A few of them are based on the history of visual art and numerous subversive strategies e. Fluxus, Situationism. Sticker literature can also be read as a folklore literature, which can circumvent the professional institutions e.
Recontextualizing all of the aforementioned approaches goes beyond the frame of this chapter. Moreover, putting up stick- ers can be a psycho-geographical strategy to transform and react to the common space in a poetic way. Using stickers in public spaces also means creating a situation and working collaboratively. According to Situationism, such psycho-geographical action can be con- sidered a rebellious strategy opposed to the ubiquitous Spectacle.
He argues that people, con- trolled by mass-media, become observers, non-participants. Consumers do not experience life nor do they act in life, but replace reality by con- templation as they lead a superficial and inauthentic existence. Also the Society of the Spectacle is characterized by a lack of human perception, and a complete degradation of knowledge and critical thinking.
Scott Rettberg, co-author of a novel-length sticker project, mentioned that putting stickers up in his normal traffic environment helped him to find a canvas and a kind of playground for his city. I am noticing the signs of graffitists and street artists.
He reinvented his own city and public space for his use. Another tool one can find useful to describe stickers in the public space is given by the anthropology of everyday life.
Since one of the most important qualities of folk literature is its oppositional and non-official nature, stickers can be considered a flagship genre of this kind of writing.
In a sense, attaching stickers to public sur- faces has an ethical and practical function: the goal is to provide meaning. Stickers can be treated as a form of communication, visual written dialog in public space that is why they often contain e-mail addresses or URLs.
Just as with graffiti, ethnology considered stickers a tool to help shape the world. That is the reason behind placing stickers in places which are unfamiliar, unknown, ugly and belong to anybody. Attaching stickers in such areas could be the expression of a will to change those places, to make them safer and better described.
Moreover, stickers interact with other signs in the public space. Especially big cities are considered to be areas where the number of signs is overwhelming, and where signs usually contain restrictions or manipulations designed to keep us consuming. In addition, stickers use strategies to provide a feeling of safety that contra- dicts macro-aesthetics large size, noisy and manipulative.
Paradoxically, small stickers can be more visible than large-size means of communica- tion. Small size is significant because it provides an opportunity to react immediately and to move quickly. Furthermore, a sticker can be carried all the time in the pocket.
Stickers can be characterized as folklore literature because their audience is accidental: the reader is someone who does not plan to go for a reading series or to the bookstore. Apart from the accidental audi- ence, sticker artists address their works to other sticker artists and in this way, create a kind of community Kwiatkowska , — Distributed narrative, transmedia narrative Jill Walker sees sticker projects along with e-mail novels and new web- sites as flagship examples of distributed narratives.
According to her re- search, artists in the postprint era tend to invent new genres, which do not achieve unity. Experiments in the digital era go further in opening the for- mal and physical aspects of literary works than postmodernist text chunk, fragmented plot or style. Notably, contemporary works are spread across time, space and the network Walker Walker points out that literary works based on distributed narratives do not have clear boundaries like book covers or the linear narrative.
In her view, distributed narratives become ambiguous because readers and critics must describe and locate things that are not things but connections. That means the whole narrative cannot be read. The project will also be disin- tegrated, as people words pass away. Another project that does not use the paper book as a medium is The genieBottles, a system build in MIT Tangible Media, presenting stories told by genies who live in bottles.
The story begins when a bottle, treated as the packaging of a story, is opened. Also, there is no single author and group of authors who is in control of the narrative, and there is no unity of time.
Distributed narratives also upended the established definition of a narrative, which for scholars consists of events ordered in time with some kind of causal connection between them. The vocabulary proposed by Jill Walker is not the only one that de- scribes the phenomenon of creating narrative across various media.
Transmedial narrations and distributive narra- tion are being told in the world of participatory culture.
Lviv hippodrome is located in the southern outskirts of the city, along the Stryiska road. This place where high-bred race horses are contested is unique in Ukraine. The hippodrome has a modern grass "green track" and the only in Ukraine photo finish system that allows recording the race results with an accuracy up to one thousandth second. The first hippodrome in Lviv was built near the Yaniv toll house in ca. The horseraces had been taking place in the city since In Soviet times, the old hippodrome was joined to the territory of the "Dynamo" stadium.
Stryiskyi Park site – former "Sokil-Batko" stadium