He has been awarded for bringing a new narrative style to Spanish fiction. The novel is about the industrial, social and economic changes the city of Barcelona saw during the 19th and 20th centuries. Since this fiction appeared to me as a classical text, this work proposes to see this novel from a Marxist perspective. Examining these novels in the light of Marxist theory facilitates a greater comprehension of the texts and enhances the understanding of Barcelona. Article DOI:

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Article DOI: Anurag Bhagat. Manuscript Info Abstract. It is the Spanish- Received: 20 December speaking world's highest literary honour. He has been awarded for Final Accepted: 17 January bringing a new narrative style to Spanish fiction. The novel is about the Published: February industrial, social and economic changes the city of Barcelona saw during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Since this fiction appeared to me as Key words:- a classical text, this work proposes to see this novel from a Marxist Industrialization, Capitalism, Workers, perspective. All rights reserved. Introduction:- After the decline of feudalism in Spain and other European countries, a new class had emerged. This new class was of merchants and industrialists. They were called the Bourgeoisie class. The twentieth century Barcelona witnessed the development of the bourgeoisie that built and managed the factories and considerably increased the population of the working class.

Capitalism became the dominant mode of production in Barcelona and has maintained its eminence since then. Along with industrialization, the process of urbanization was also very fast and influenced the lives of the people of Barcelona.

The urban experience under capitalism was forming a different consciousness among the people and I would like to quote Marx here who said that It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness. La verdad sobre el caso Savolta is about the development of Barcelona in the 20th century.

This work reflects exactly what was happening in the cities of Spain with urbanization and modernization. La verdad sobre el caso Savolta deals with Barcelona and Javier Miranda, the protagonist of the novel who is also the main witness in a New York court case concerned with the life insurance of his former boss, Paul-Andr Lepprince, who died in an incident in the Savolta factory.

The proofs of the court and memories of Miranda give us detail about the life of Barcelona between the years and They were full of social tensions, anarchist rebellions marked by class conflicts. After Miranda moved to Barcelona from Valladolid, he met Paul-Andr Lepprince, a French businessman who after arriving in Barcelona in becomes rich and ranks among the upper class of Barcelona acquiring authority of the arms factory.

He does this by marrying Maria Rosa Savolta, the daughter of the main shareholder of the Savolta factory. Miranda unknowingly becomes Lepprince's puppet and marries Maria Coral, Lepprince's another girlfriend so that he can continue his relationship with her despite his marriage with Maria Rosa Savolta.

After the other shareholders of the Savolta plant are killed, Lepprince gains almost exclusive control over the business, which. Corresponding Author:- Anurag Bhagat. ISSN: Int. However, anarchist rebellions, general work strikes and the end of the war caused the demise of the plant Savolta and Lepprince.

Before Lepprince could be declared bankruptcy, an anarchist agitation ended his life, burning the factory along with him. Analysis:- This novel deals with a long history of Barcelonas industrial development.

The city has also witnessed the development of both the bourgeoisie and workers socialist movements. In order to understand exactly how this historical novel deals with the questions of Spanish society, I intend to see the content of the novel from the perspective of Marx.

According to the article of 6th October that was published on the newspaper La voz de la justicia of Barcelona, the writer clearly shows two pictures of Spain.

On one hand he is very happy to mention that there is freedom of press, constitutional guarantees, universal adult franchise and the nation is civilized. On the other hand he says that his land has entered into dark ages as there is exploitation of worker by the powerful.

The workers who are illiterate, who are not able to understand the present situation are the victims of the capitalism which has started expanding in the city. The capitalist society does not address the problems of the workers. It does not work to create awareness among workers so that they know their rights. The custody of social justice is held by the ruling class which exploits the workers in factories like that of Savolta factory in order to earn profit. According to Marx, the worker is not free since he is forced to work for the capitalist in order to survive.

All he can do is exchange one form of wage slavery for another. Marx refers to the dominant ideas of each epoch as ruling class ideology.

Such ideology is a distortion of reality, a false picture of society. It binds members of society to the contradictions and conflict of interest which are built into their relationships. As a result they tend to accept their situation as normal and natural, right and proper.

In this way a false consciousness of reality is produced which helps to maintain the system. Marx says that. The class which has the means of material production at its disposal, has control at the same time ever the means of mental production, so that in consequence the ideas o f those who lack the means of mental production are, in general, subject to it. As there is exploitation in the society the words like equality and freedom are illusions. The employer-employee relationship is not equal.

It is an exploitive relationship. Pajarito de Soto also believes that freedom and equality exists only upto a certain limit. The workers have to protest for getting these rights. There working condition is deplorable, the salaries are not adequate. So, Pajarito de Soto says that la misin de todos y cada uno de nosotros no es luchar por la libertad o el progreso, en abstracto, que son palabras huecas, sino contribuir a crear unas condiciones futuras que permitan a la humanidad una vida mejor en un mundo de horizontes amplios y claros.

However, the real democracy lies from the fact that there is political freedom, equality and the rule of law. These principles must reflected in all the citizens of country so that they live a dignified life. The class division was clearly visible from the fact that in order to maintain their privileged position in the society, the state machinery would do any kind of injustice or suffering to others.

For example by inflation the poorest would suffer the most as their salaries remain constant. As also mentioned in the novel Y as ocurri lo que viene aconteciendo desde tiempo inmemorial: que los ricos fueron cada vez ms ricos, y los pobres, ms pobres y miserables cada vez.

And so it has happened since immemorial time that the rich were getting richer, and the poor were getting poorer and miserable every time; Mendoza,,p. According to Karl Marx, in all stratified societies, there are two major social groups, a ruling class and a subject class. The power of the ruling class derives from its ownership and control of the forces of production. Alienation occurs because capitalism has evolved into a two class system in which a few capitalists own the production process, the products, and the labor time of those who work on them.

The ruling class who are also rich exploits and oppresses the subject class who are in most of the cases are poor. As a result, there is a basic conflict of interest between the two classes. The various institutions of society such as the legal and political systems are instruments of ruling class domination and serve to further its interests. From a Marxian perspective, systems of stratification derive from the relationships of social groups to the forces of production.

From a Marxian view, a class is a social group whose members share the same relationship to the forces of production.

Thus during the feudal epoch, there are two main classes distinguished by their relationship to land, the major force of production. They are the feudal nobility who own the land and the landless serfs who work the land. Similarly, in the capitalist era, there are two main classes, the bourgeoisie or capitalist class which owns the forces of production and the proletariat or working class whose members own only their labour which they hire to the bourgeoisie in return for wages.

This situation can be seen from the following sentences. Cortabanyes tena razn cuando me desengaaba: los ricos slo se preocupan de s mismos. Su amabilidad, su cario y sus muestras de inters son espejismos.

Hay que ser un necio para confiar en la perdurabilidad de su afecto. Y eso sucede porque los vnculos que pueden existir entre un rico y un pobre no son recprocos. El rico no necesita al pobre siempre que quiera lo sustituir.

Cortabanyes was right when I was disillusioned, the rich only care about themselves. Their kindness, affection and signs of interest are mirages. You have to be a fool to trust in the endurance of your affection. And that happens because the links that can exist between a rich and a poor are not reciprocal. The rich does not need the poor whenever he wants to replace him; Mendoza,,p. Nemesio Cabra gomez criticizes the working conditions in a very different way and says that the conduct of people is the cause of the poverty which harms and makes the wives and children ill and unhappy.

The misery, the famine, the illiteracy and the pain that the people receive is actually not because of them but because of the ruling class ideology. It is this group which oppress you, exploit you, betray you and if necessary, they kill you. Nemesio says that he knows the names of illustrious persons who have the red hands of blood of the workpeople but one cannot see them, because white suede gloves cover them. Gloves brought from Paris and paid with your money.

You think that they pay you for the work that you do in these factories, its a lie. They pay you so that you do not die of famine and could keep on working from sunrise to sunset. The money or the profit they will not give it to you as this is the true nature of a capitalist society.

The author expresses this situation through a Greek statue in the novel which says El hombre pobre y trabajador se halla oprimido por el que es rico y no trabaja. The poor and hardworking man is oppressed by the one who is rich and does not work; Mendoza,,p.

Here the working class is oppressed by the powerful but there is also another kind of oppression, which is like passing on the oppression that the man has suffered, oppressing in turn the female.

This female has no relief as she suffers from famine, the cold and the misery that causes the bourgeois development. In the earliest form of human society, the land and its products were communally owned. From a Marxian perspective, the relationship between the major social classes is one of mutual dependence and conflict.

Thus in capitalist society, the bourgeoisie and proletariat are dependent upon each other. The wage labourer must sell his labour power in order to survive since he does not own a part of the forces of production and lacks the means to produce goods independently. However, the mutual dependency of the two classes is not a relationship of equal or symmetrical reciprocity.


Eduardo Mendoza






Eduardo Mendoza. Biografía



Ganador de la edición


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