KNYTLINGA SAGA PDF

Anglo-Saxon England suffered many attacks and invasions from Viking and Scandinavian rulers. Knut also known as Canute was the son of Svein Forkbeard, who had secured most of England just before his death in This account of the conflict comes from Knytlinga Saga: The History of the Kings of Denmark , an anonymous chronicle that may have been written in Iceland in the mid-thirteenth century. The author has made use of many earlier sources, such as the section of various poems that he includes in the text. The account begins with the death of Svein Forkbeard.

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Anglo-Saxon England suffered many attacks and invasions from Viking and Scandinavian rulers. Knut also known as Canute was the son of Svein Forkbeard, who had secured most of England just before his death in This account of the conflict comes from Knytlinga Saga: The History of the Kings of Denmark , an anonymous chronicle that may have been written in Iceland in the mid-thirteenth century.

The author has made use of many earlier sources, such as the section of various poems that he includes in the text. The account begins with the death of Svein Forkbeard. King Svein was a great man of war and the strongest of rulers. He plundered widely both to the east in the Baltic and south in Saxony. Eventually, he led his troops west into England and plundered far and wide there, fighting many battles. After the death of King Svein, Danish chieftains held onto that part of the country he had conquered: then war broke out again.

Keen the encounter, you saved the kinsman of Edmund, brought him back to his birthright. About that time, the Danes established their house-carles in England, paid soldiers and the bravest of warriors, who did most of the fighting against the Englishmen. Knut, son of King Svein Forkbeard, was ten years old when his father died. Since his brother Harald was already dead, Knut was made King of Denmark and all the lands that Denmark ruled.

The Danish chieftains in England who held the territories there conquered by King Svein sent word to Denmark, asking King Knut to sail west to England with the Danish army, and so strengthen their position. However, as King Knut was still only a boy and unaccustomed to military command, his friends advised him to send an army to England, but put someone else in charge, and not go there himself until he was older. So that was how things stood: for three years after coming to the throne he remained in Denmark.

After that time had passed, he gathered an army in Denmark for a campaign overseas, also sending word to his brother-in-law Earl Eirik in Norway to levy troops and join him on an expedition to England, since Earl Eirik had a great reputation for courage and leadership in war, having won two of the most famous battles ever to be fought in Scandinavia; one of them the battle King Svein Forkbeard, Olaf King of Sweden, and Earl Eirik fought against Olaf Tryggvason at Svold, the other fought by Earl Hakon and Earl Eirik against the jomsvikmgs at Liavaag.

But a boy, you ship-batterer, when you launched your boat, no king younger than you yet cast off from his country: helmed one, you hacked the hard-cased ships, risked all, with red shield raged along the shore. Loth to, flee, the Jutes joined you — the generous sea-rover armed his soldiers, assembled them in Skaane — sage one, the sail stretched above you as westward your prow pointed to win prowess.

Many chieftains went with King Knut to England. As soon as King Knut reached England he marched inland, looting and killing, and burning down every settlement, as Ottar the Black says:. Great king! You were but a boy when you set homes ablaze: the house-bane, made them fetch out their forces. The natives gathered together an army and went forward to fight the Danes, as Thord Kolbeinsson tells:. King Knut fought his first pitched battle in England at Lindsey, where there were heavy casualties: then he captured Hemmingborough in England, where many fell, as Ottar says:.

Great one you grappled on the green field of Lindsey, you crushed your victims, vikings won the victory. In broad Hemmingborough, bloodshedder of Swedes, you laid waste the English west of Ouse-waters. Later he fought great battles in Northumberland on the River Tees, killing many there, while others fled to perish in bogs and ditches. Then King Knut led his army south, conquering all before him. Immediately after his death Queen Emma, his widow, prepared for a journey overseas, meaning to sail west to France and visit her brothers William and Robert, who were earls there.

They brought Queen Emma to King Knut, and it was agreed by the king and his chieftains that he should take Queen Emma as his wife: so that was done. King Edmund now gathered a great army and marched against King Knut.

They met at a place called Sherston in one of the most famous battles of the time, with heavy loss of life on either side: king Edmund charged straight into the heart of the Danish army, to within striking distance of his step-father, King Knut.

Knut thrust forward his shield right over the neck of his horse and the stroke landed on the shield just below the handgrip with such force that it sliced right through the shield, and the horse too, as deep as the shoulder. After that, the Danes attacked Edmund so fiercely he had to retreat to his own ranks, though he had killed a good many of the Danes without suffering much in the way of wounds himself.

Then they broke ranks and ran, though some of them caught a glimpse of the king riding away from the Danes. However, they all fled, even those who had seen him, and though the king shouted to them to turn back no-one showed any sign of hearing him.

The whole English army was routed and a terrible slaughter followed, with the Danes pursuing the fleeing troops until nightfall, as Ottar the Black tells:. Then he found himself in this forest, so dense that though he tried all night, he could discover no way out until daylight came. Then on some open ground before him he saw a full-grown youngster herding a flock of sheep.

The Earl approached him and asked his name. Now, first of all you must come home with me and see my father. When they reached the farmstead, they went into the smaller living-room, where Godwin had a table set up and good drink served.

As Earl Ulf could see, it was a fine, well-furnished farmhouse. Then the farmer and his wife came in, handsome, well-dressed people. They welcomed their guest warmly and he spent the rest of the day enjoying the best of hospitality.

When it was growing dark, two good horses were fitted out with the finest riding-gear. Then they had a word with Ulf. Godwin being a handsome, well-spoken fellow, Earl Ulf promised to let him join his company. The men were ashore, and when they saw and recognized the earl they crowded round and welcomed him as if he had risen from the dead, for he was so popular everybody loved him. Only then did Godwin realise in whose company he had been. The earl set Godwin on the high seat beside him, and treated him as equal with himself or his own son.

Many great men from England, Denmark, Sweden and east from Russia are descended from them, including the royal house of Denmark. Shield smasher, the Frisians you flattened , no friendship when you crushed the castle and their cottages at Brenford. Cruel the cuts suffered by the kinsman of Edmund, as Danish spears showered down on the shambles. In the words of Ottar:. You bloodied the breastplates, 0 bountiful, at Norwich: better killed than accused of lacking courage.

After that, King Knut marched his army to the Thames, having heard that King Edmund and his brothers had fled to London. There they fouled forces and sailed up-river, as Thord Kolbeinsson tells in his Lay of Eirik:. Yet again Knut the King crashed forward onto the shingle, smiting the sea with his longships: eager was the helmed-earl to cross over the ocean with the king that morning merry the meeting.

These are the words of Ottar the Black:. King Knut led his whole force up to London and after setting up camp, made an onslaught upon the town, described in the poem composed by his own troops:.

Each morning exulting the war-maiden admires on Thames banks the bloodstained battle gear: the black raven will relish how the ravenous Dane-king bravely batters with his blade the British mailcoats. We were born and bred here where many a brisk battler will assume his old shattered shirt this morning. We still feed the English to the ospreys of Odin; the singer dresses swiftly in his hammered steel shirt.

Earl Eirik marched inland with some of the troops, a number of house-carles amongst them, against an English force commanded by Ulfkel the Skilled, a great leader. They met in battle and Eirik won the victory, while Ulfkel was put to flight, as Thord Kolbeinsson tells in his Lay of Eirik:.

West of London the warrior went out to war, the famed sea, farer fought for land; sharp cuts had Ufkel when clashing over the carles steel-blue swords shone: so smoothly my stanzas, flow. Earl Eirik gained a victory there, and Thord Kolbeinsson has more to say about his campaign in the Lay of Eirik:.

King Knut laid siege to London, which was defended by King Edmund and his brothers. Their mother, Queen Emma, was married to King Knut, and eventually hostages were exchanged by the two sides, and a truce agreed so that they could talk matters over and negotiate a lasting settlement. Peace was agreed at this meeting on these terms, that the country should be divided between them, each taking charge of half the kingdom during his lifetime, and if either of them were to die without issue, the survivor was to have the whole kingdom: this agreement was confirmed by oath.

There was a powerful man called Edric Strjona who accepted a bribe from King Knut to betray and murder King Edmund, and that is how the king met his death, though Edric was his foster-father and trusted by Edmund as he trusted his own self. Many battles were fought as a result of this, but after King Edmund had been killed they could never muster a large enough force against King Knut. As the poet Sigvat says in the Lay of Knut:.

We thank Odense University Press and Hermann Palsson for giving us their permission to republish this section. Campaigns abroad 6. Danes in England 7. An expedition to England 8. King Knut sailed west for England with a huge army, as Ottar the Black tells in his poem In Praise of Knut: But a boy, you ship-batterer, when you launched your boat, no king younger than you yet cast off from his country: helmed one, you hacked the hard-cased ships, risked all, with red shield raged along the shore.

And he said this: Loth to, flee, the Jutes joined you — the generous sea-rover armed his soldiers, assembled them in Skaane — sage one, the sail stretched above you as westward your prow pointed to win prowess.

As soon as King Knut reached England he marched inland, looting and killing, and burning down every settlement, as Ottar the Black says: Great king!

And the poet said this too: You were but a boy when you set homes ablaze: the house-bane, made them fetch out their forces. King Knut fought his first pitched battle in England at Lindsey, where there were heavy casualties: then he captured Hemmingborough in England, where many fell, as Ottar says: Great one you grappled on the green field of Lindsey, you crushed your victims, vikings won the victory.

Knut and Emma 9. The Battle of Sherston Earl Ulf s escape How far is it from here to our ships? Three battles in England To London town And he also composed this: Yet again Knut the King crashed forward onto the shingle, smiting the sea with his longships: eager was the helmed-earl to cross over the ocean with the king that morning merry the meeting.

Attack on London King Knut led his whole force up to London and after setting up camp, made an onslaught upon the town, described in the poem composed by his own troops: Each morning exulting the war-maiden admires on Thames banks the bloodstained battle gear: the black raven will relish how the ravenous Dane-king bravely batters with his blade the British mailcoats.

And this too: We were born and bred here where many a brisk battler will assume his old shattered shirt this morning. But although King Knut fought many battles there, he failed to win the town. More fighting in England They met in battle and Eirik won the victory, while Ulfkel was put to flight, as Thord Kolbeinsson tells in his Lay of Eirik: West of London the warrior went out to war, the famed sea, farer fought for land; sharp cuts had Ufkel when clashing over the carles steel-blue swords shone: so smoothly my stanzas, flow.

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DIVERSIFICAREA ALIMENTATIEI BEBELUSI PDF

Knytlinga saga

The A-class mss are more complete than those of the B class, which only begins at ch. Chapters are now missing, but the following copies were made when it was complete:. See separate entry. An A-class text for chs ; thereafter a copy of the B-class ms. Three leaves.

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Knytlinga Saga: History Of The Kings Of Denmark

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