JULIAN MARIAS HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY PDF

If in its outward manifestations philosophy seems to be mainly a history of ideas as is quite widely supposed today, this is only because men have confronted certain problems that have remained more or less constant throughout great spans of time. Ideas themselves are endued with a life and history of their own only insofar as they partake of human life. The real problems of philosophy belong to real men. For this reason philosophy cannot simply be interpreted as doctrine; it must first be understood as a human activity. This means that in order to understand a philosophy, or better, a philosopher, insofar as possible we must first understand the problems and conditions that created both the possibility and need of that particular mode of thought.

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If in its outward manifestations philosophy seems to be mainly a history of ideas as is quite widely supposed today, this is only because men have confronted certain problems that have remained more or less constant throughout great spans of time. Ideas themselves are endued with a life and history of their own only insofar as they partake of human life. The real problems of philosophy belong to real men.

For this reason philosophy cannot simply be interpreted as doctrine; it must first be understood as a human activity. This means that in order to understand a philosophy, or better, a philosopher, insofar as possible we must first understand the problems and conditions that created both the possibility and need of that particular mode of thought.

The real understanding of any page of philosophy requires the reader to recreate at least to a certain point the task of the philosopher who wrote it, that is, the philosopher who 'had' both the obligation and the ability to create that philosophy" Obras, II, Conversely, if, as is often the case, we uproot a philosophy from its social and intellectual habitat, we shall probably not understand its innermost meaning; for in removing it from its world and time, in reducing it to mere unrooted abstraction, we deprive it of the personal and hence ultimate motives that inspired and shaped it.

In every mode of thought to a greater or lesser degree, human needs, struggles, and bias rise eventually to the surface. The fondest dream of modern philosophy seems to have been to speak impartially for all men and all ages. Time and again it has attempted to gain some ultimate and utopian point of view from where its contentions would be beyond question and reproach. But each time its gesture has turned out to be vain and thus petulant. Each "absolute" view has been shown to be merely penultimate and thus provisional.

Shunning the utopian and abstract and going counter to prevailing philosophical aims, Unamuno once remarked not without his usual exaggeration that even the most abstract work of philosophy, Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, for instance, is really a novel. What he meant was that in every.

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. No cover image. Read preview. Lemon Routledge, Read preview Overview. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts. Course of the History of Modern Philosophy - Vol.

Wight D. Appleton, Read Overview. Are Human Rights a Philosophy of History? Hindu philosophy The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. We use cookies to deliver a better user experience and to show you ads based on your interests. By using our website, you agree to the use of cookies as described in our Privacy Policy.

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History of Philosophy

Christianity marks the most profound division in the history of philosophy; it separates the two great phases of Western thought. However, it would be wrong to think of Christianity as a philosophy; it is something quite different—a religion. The only philosophy that we can call Christian philosophy is the philosophy of Christians as Christians ; that is, that philosophy which is shaped by the Christian situation from which a particular philosopher begins to philosophize. I n this sense Christianity has played a decisive role in the history of metaphysics, because it has essentially altered the presuppositions upon which man bases his thought and actions and, therefore, the situation from which he must philosophize.

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History of Philosophy

If we ignore the obscure problem of Oriental Indian, Chinese philosophy, in which what is most problematic is the meaning of the word philosophy itself, and focus our attention on what philosophy has been in the West, we will find that its first stage is the philosophy of the Greeks. This initial phase, which lasted for more than a millennium, differs from all later phases in that it does not have a philosophic tradition behind it; that is, Greek philosophy emerges from a concrete human situation—that of ancient man—which contains no philosophical element or ingredient. We cannot discuss this problem here, but we must at least point out some of the historic suppositions which made philosophy possible and necessary in the Hellenic world. A way of life is defined above all by its repertory of beliefs. Naturally, beliefs change, as Ortega has shown, from generation to generation—this is what constitutes historical mutation. But a certain basic core of beliefs endures through several generations and gives them the higher unity which we designate by such words as epoch, era or age.

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A Biography of Philosophy

If we ignore the obscure problem of Oriental Indian, Chinese philosophy, in which what is most problematic is the meaning of the word "philosophy" itself, and focus our attention on what philosophy has been in the West, we will find that its first stage is the philosophy of the Greeks. This initial phase, which lasted for more than a millennium, differs from all later phases in that it does not have a philosophic tradition behind it; that is, Greek philosophy emerges from a concrete human situation—that of "ancient" man—which contains no philosophical element or ingredient. This circumstance has two important consequences: in the first place, the birth of philosophy in Greece has a purity and originality superior to all that is to come later; secondly, ancient man's vital and historical situation directly conditions Hellenic speculation to the point that the major theme of the history of Greek philosophy consists in determining why man, upon reaching a certain stage in his development, found himself compelled to fulfill a completely new and unknown need, which today we call philosophizing. We cannot discuss this problem here, but we must at least point out some of the historic suppositions which made philosophy possible and necessary in the Hellenic world. A way of life is defined above all by its repertory of beliefs. Naturally, beliefs change, as Ortega has shown, from generation to generation—this is what constitutes historical mutation.

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