INVISIBLE BROKEN WIRE DETECTOR PDF

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Portable loads such as video cameras, halogen flood lights, electrical irons, hand drillers, grinders, and cutters are powered by connecting long 2- or 3-core cables to the mains plug. Due to prolonged usage, the power cord wires are subjected to mechanical strain and stress, which can lead to internal snapping of wires at any point. In 3-core cables, it appears almost impossible to detect a broken wire and the point of break without physically disturbing all the three wires that are concealed in a PVC jacket.

Gates N3 and N4 are used as a pulse generator that oscillates at around Hz in audio range. The frequency is determined by timing components comprising resistors R3 and R4, and capacitor C1. Gates N1 and N2 are used to sense the presence of V AC field around the live wire and buffer weak AC voltage picked from the test probe.

The voltage at output pin 10 of gate N2 can enable or inhibit the oscillator circuit. Due to prolonged usage, the power cord wires are subjected to mechanical strain and stress, which can lead to internal snapping of wires at any point So we have built a circuit which can easily detect the exact location of the broken wire and thus reduces unnecessary expenses of the user.

Invisible Broken wire detector is an instrument, very useful under these circumstances since it can easily detect the location of internal snapping without contact and physical disturbance.

When it senses the breakage in the faulty wire the LED in the instrument turns off, the user knows the location of the fault and the broken section of wire can be replaced easily. Finding out the exact location of breakage can be a problem to the user as the wires are usually insulated by PVC or plastic jacket making the conducting wires inside them invisible.

These devices are intended for all general- purpose inverter applications where the medium- power TTL-drive and logic-level-conversion capabilities of circuits such as the CD and CD hex inverter and buffers are not required.

A switching diode provides the same functionality as a switch. It has high resistance below the specified applied voltage similar to an open switch, whereas above that voltage it changes in a sudden way to the low resistance of a closed switch. Switching diodes are used in devices such as ring modulation. The 1N is standard silicon switching signal diode. It is one of the most popular and long-lived switching diodes because of its dependable specifications and low cost.

The 1N is useful in switching applications up to about MHz with a reverse- recovery time of no more than 4 ns. These have high switching speed up to 4ns and have continuous reverse voltage up to volts, repetitive peak reverse voltage, max: V and repetitive peak forward current, max: mA. A transistor, stands for transfer of resistance, is commonly used to amplify current. BC is mainly used for amplification and switching purposes. It has a maximum current gain of Its equivalent transistors are BC and BC The transistor terminals require a fixed DC voltage to operate in the desired region of its characteristic curves.

This is known as the biasing. For amplification applications, the transistor is biased such that it is partly on for all input conditions. The input signal at base is amplified and taken at the emitter. BC is used in common emitter configuration for amplifiers. The voltage divider is the commonly used biasing mode.

For switching applications, transistor is biased so that it remains fully on if there is a signal at its base. In the absence of base signal, it gets completely off.

Resistors 47 ohm 1M ohm ohm ohm 5. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. When a light- emitting diode is forward-biased switched on , electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons.

This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light corresponding to the energy of the photon is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are often small in area less than 1 mm2 , and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, and faster switching.

LED materials technology grew more advanced, light output rose, while maintaining efficiency and reliability at acceptable levels. Capacitor Fig. Capacitor A capacitor formerly known as condenser is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric insulator ; for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film.

Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. When there is a potential difference voltage across the conductors, a static electric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other plate.

Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, measured in farads.

This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. Switch 7. When the test probe is away from any high-voltage AC field, output pin 10 of gate N2 remains low. As a result, diode D3 conducts and inhibits the oscillator circuit from oscillating. As a result, LED1 goes off. When the test probe is moved closer to V AC, 50Hz mains live wire, during every positive half cycle, output pin 10 of gate N2 goes high.

Thus during every positive half-cycle of the mains frequency, the oscillator circuit is allowed to oscillate at around 1 kHz, making red LED LED1 to blink. Due to the persistence of vision, the LED appears to be glowing continuously.

This type of blinking reduces consumption of the current from button cells used for power supply. The 9v dc power supply is sufficient to the whole circuit. Which are also used inside laser pointers or in LED-based continuity testers can be used for the circuit. The circuit consumes 3 mA during the sensing of AC mains voltage. The whole circuit can be mounted in small white box and used as a handy broken wire detector Before detecting broken faulty wires, take out any connected load and find out the faulty wire first by continuity method using any millimeter or continuity tester.

Then connect V AC mains live wire at one end of the faulty wire, leaving the other end free. Connect neutral terminal of the mains AC to the remaining wires at one end. However, if any of the remaining wires is also found to be faulty, then both ends of these wires are connected to neutral. For single-wire testing, connecting neutral only to the live wire at one end is sufficient to detect the breakage point. To detect the breakage point, turn on switch S1 and slowly move the test probe closer to the faulty wire, beginning with the input point of the live wire and proceeding towards its other end.

LED1 starts blowing during the presence of AC voltage in faulty wire. When the breakage point is reached, LED1 immediately extinguishes due to the non-availability of mains AC voltage. The point where LED1 is turned off is the exact broken-wire point. During testing avoid any strong electric field close to the circuit to avoid false detection.

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Invisible Broken Wire Detector

Invisible Broken wire detector is an instrument, very useful under these circumstances since it can easily detect the location of internal snapping without contact and physical disturbance. When it senses the breakage in the faulty wire the LED in the instrument turns off, the user knows the location of the fault and the broken section of wire can be replaced easily. Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson. The circuit is made cheap and best. It would not only be able in reducing wastage of time but resources too. Thus using just a hex inverter and few resistors we are able to construct a device which can easily detect a faulty broken wire and thus save the extra cost of a user which is incurred on replacing it which is otherwise too difficult.

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Simple Broken Wire Detector

It detects the broken wire by detecting the presence of AC voltage in the wire. When there will be AC voltage present near it, then it will start beeping and LED will go high while when there will be no AC voltage or if there will be a broken wire, then the buzzer will remain quiet and the LED will go low. The devices which run on A. C, like electrical irons, grinders, air conditioners, flood lights, are powered by long 2 or 3 core cables connected to the AC mains. Due to the utilization of these appliances for a long time with the flow of high current or because of mechanical strains, these wires may get broken from somewhere. It is very difficult to locate the accurate location of the broken wire, because now days electric wires are installed inside the walls by using the PVC pipes. And because of this, people generally prefer to replace the broken instead of repairing it.

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