Impact of maintenance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae broodstock on the water used in culture ponds. Biudes JFV. I ; Camargo, AFM. Aquaculture production generates social and economic benefits, but can also cause environmental impacts. Between January and December , we determined, monthly, the biomass of M.
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Impact of maintenance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae broodstock on the water used in culture ponds. Biudes JFV. I ; Camargo, AFM. Aquaculture production generates social and economic benefits, but can also cause environmental impacts.
Between January and December , we determined, monthly, the biomass of M. The highest biomass of M. The maintenance of broodstock of M.
Additionally, the increase in the biomass of the prawns intensifies the export of nitrogen and phosphorus from the pond in the effluent. Keywords: biomass, giant river prawn, effluent, phosphorus, nitrogen.
Entre janeiro e dezembro de , foram determinadas, mensalmente, a biomassa de M. A maior biomassa de M. According to the FAO , world production of M. This growth in world production is due principally to the development of culture technologies Valenti and Tidwell, , and has brought economic and social benefits to those involved in the production network. On the other hand, prawn farming can also produce negative environmental impacts, mainly related to the effluent from culture ponds Boyd, In addition, the eutrophication increases the cost of treating the water for human consumption because of the need to use more sophisticated technologies to remove organic matter, nutrients, pathogenic organisms, and other impurities from the water Tundisi and Tundisi, The characteristics of aquaculture effluents can vary with the species cultured, the intensity of culture, management of feed, and level of technology used Boyd, Therefore, the characterisation of the impact of each cultured organism on the water used depends on individualised evaluations.
Evaluation of this impact is fundamental for improving the culture management, with a view toward producing effluent with lower concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended particulate matter, and biochemical oxygen demand Baccarin and Camargo, Although the impact of aquaculture is well known, this impact can only be assessed if we estimate the nutrient loads as measured in mass per unit of time.
Thus in this study, the loads of nitrogen and phosphorus of the supply and effluent water of the rearing pond were calculated, in order to allow comparison of the impact of maintaining broodstock of M. Material and Methods. The water supplying the pond came from reservoirs, and the flow rate at the pond entrance was adjusted to The flow rate of the effluent at the pond outlet was The total number of prawns in the pond was determined in April, August, and December , when the prawns were removed and all the individuals were counted.
During the study, no new prawns were added, and therefore, the variation in biomass during the study was due exclusively to mortality and to growth of the prawns stocked in the pond. Approximately 0. Each month, we calculated the loads g. The first two principal components explained All forms of nitrogen and phosphorus had higher concentrations in the effluent than in the supply water.
For example, the concentration of TP in the effluent L -1 was higher than in the supply water The biomass of M. The quantity of feed provided was highest in April 5. The increase in the biomass of M.
On the other hand, the linear regression analysis did not show a relationship between the prawn biomass and the additions of P-PO 4 and SPM in the water. The maintenance of broodstock of Macrobrachium rosenbergii at biomass levels between The increase in SPM is probably related to the production of feces and excretions by M. An additional part of the feed is not consumed and becomes detritus Hargreaves, With respect to the phytoplankton, the results for chlorophyll- a showed that there was an increase in phytoplankton in the pond, probably because of the increases in concentrations of IN and P-PO 4 in the water.
These nutrients are considered to be limiting factors for phytoplankton growth Burford, The increases in pH and dissolved O 2 concentrations are probably related to photosynthesis by the phytoplankton. If the measurements had been made at night, the lack of photosynthesis might have resulted in lower levels of pH and dissolved O 2 in the effluent of the rearing pond. We also note that the pH values obtained in this study 6. L -1 , the level below which M. This increase is related to the non-use by M.
Nitrogen is excreted by M. However, it is not easy to quantitatively compare the results of these studies and to indicate how the species cultivated or the management techniques used add more nutrients to the pond water. One difficulty in this comparison is that the studies frequently show only the values of nutrient concentrations in the supply water and the effluent. From these data, it is possible to conclude only that the cultivation of M.
A precise comparison of the impact caused by cultivation is only possible if we calculate the nutrient loads, i. Therefore, the increase of the biomass of M. Consequently, the increase in the biomass must occur together with the treatment of the pond effluent, to remove N and P from the effluent and minimise the impact of the discharge of this effluent into receiving waterbodies.
In a study carried out during fattening of O. The maintenance of broodstock of Macrobrachium rosenbergii at biomasses between Calculation of the nutrient load of the supply and effluent water of rearing ponds is essential for the comparison of the impact of different culture systems and species, because it takes into account both the outflow rate and the concentration.
The use of concentration is inadequate for the comparison in the impact of different culture systems, because it varies with the outflow. There was a direct positive relationship between the biomass of the broodstock of M. Wagner Cotroni Valenti for logistical support during the course of the study, and Carlos Fernando Sanches for help in the field and laboratory work. ANH, PT. Water pollution by intensive brackish shrimp farming in south-east Vietnam: Causes and options for control.
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Practical methods are given for culturing and farming M. Suitable water conditions, food, tanks, ponds, buildings and equipment for all stages are specified. The scheme covers rearing to early juvenile stages under hatchery conditions and the subsequent stocking of ponds and padi-fields. Detalla las condiciones convenientes del agua, alimento, tanques, estanques, edificios y equipo para todas las fases.
E xperimental culture of the river prawn Macrobrachium americanum larvae Bate, , with emphasis on feeding and stocking density effect on survival. Mar Bermejo , Col. The cauque river prawn Macrobrachium americanum occurs along the Pacific coast of America. This prawn can grow to a large size, making it an interesting option for aquaculture production. Currently, supplies of juveniles are limited because hatchery and laboratory-reared larvae are difficult to raise. This study assesses larval survival for different combinations of stocking density and feeding from larvae cultivated in green water.