The following examples demonstrate the use of Arquillian. Currently Arquillian is distributed as a Maven only project, so you'll need to grab the examples from SVN. In this tutorial we show you how to use both. Running these tests from the command line is easy. The examples run against all the servers supported by Arquillian of course, you must choose a container that is capable of deploying EJBs for these tests.

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Ever since the inception of Java EE, testing enterprise applications has been a major pain point. Testing business components, in particular, can be very challenging. Often, a vanilla unit test isn't sufficient for validating such a component's behavior. Why is that? The reason is that components in an enterprise application rarely perform operations which are strictly self-contained. Instead, they interact with or provide services for the greater system.

They also have declarative functionality which gets applied at runtime. You could say "no business component is an island. The way the component interacts with the system is just as important as the work it performs. Even with the application separated into more layers than your favorite Mexican dip, to validate the correctness of a component, you have to observe it carrying out its work— in situ.

Unit tests and mock testing can only take you so far. Business logic aside, how do you test your component's "enterprise" semantics? Especially true of business components, you eventually have to ensure that the declarative services, such as dependency injection and transaction control, actually get applied and work as expected.

It means interacting with databases or remote systems and ensuring that the component plays well with its collaborators. Will the right component be injected?

You may just need to write a test to explore how the declarative services behave, or that your application is configured correctly to use them. This style of testing needed here is referred to as integration testing, and it's an essential part of the enterprise development process.

Arquillian, a new testing framework developed at JBoss. Arquillian strives to make integration testing no more complicated than basic unit testing. It turns out, if these tests execute quickly, they're really the only tests you need. The importance of Arquillian in the Java EE space cannot be emphasized enough. If writing good tests for Java EE projects is some dark art in which knowledge is shared only by the Java gurus, people are either going to be turned off of Java EE or a lot of fragile applications are going to be written.

Arquillian is set to become the first comprehensive solution for testing Java EE applications, namely because it leverages the container rather than a contrived runtime environment.

This guide documents Arquillian's architecture, how to get started using it and how to extend it. If you have questions, please use the top-level discussions forum in the Arquillian space on JBoss. We also provide a JIRA issue tracking system for bug reports and feature requests.

If you are interested in the development of Arquillian, or want to translate this documentation into your language, we welcome you to join us in the Arquillian Development subspace on JBoss. We believe that integration testing should be no more complex than writing a basic unit test. We created Arquillian to realize that goal. One of the major complaints we heard about Seam 2 testing i.

We wanted to correct those shortcomings with Arquillian. Testing needs vary greatly, which is why it's so vital that, with Arquillian and ShrinkWrap , we have decomposed the problem into its essential elements. The result is a completely flexible and portable integration testing framework.

The mission of the Arquillian project is to provide a simple test harness that developers can use to produce a broad range of integration tests for their Java applications most likely enterprise applications. A test case may be executed within the container, deployed alongside the code under test, or by coordinating with the container, acting as a client to the deployed code.

Arquillian defines two styles of container, remote and embedded. A remote container resides in a separate JVM from the test runner. Its lifecycle may be managed by Arquillian, or Arquillian may bind to a container that is already started. An embedded container resides in the same JVM and is mostly likely managed by Arquillian. Containers can be further classified by their capabilities. Examples include a fully compliant Java EE application server e.

Arquillian ensures that the container used for testing is pluggable, so the developer is not locked into a proprietary testing environment.

Arquillian seeks to minimize the burden on the developer to carry out integration testing by handling all aspects of test execution, including:.

To avoid introducing unnecessary complexity into the developer's build environment, Arquillian integrates transparently with familiar testing frameworks e. At the core, Arquillian provides a custom test runner for JUnit and TestNG that turns control of the test execution lifecycle from the unit testing framework to Arquillian.

From there, Arquillian can delegate to service providers to setup the environment to execute the tests inside or against the container. An Arquillian test case looks just like a regular JUnit or TestNG test case with two declarative enhancements, which will be covered later. Since Arquillian works by replacing the test runner, Arquillian tests can be executed using existing test IDE, Ant and Maven test plugins without any special configuration.

Test results are reported just like you would expect. That's what we mean when we say using Arquillian is no more complicated than basic unit testing. At this point, it's appropriate to pause and define the three aspects of an Arquillian test case. This terminology will help you better understand the explainations of how Arquillian works.

The test case is dispatched to the container's environment through coordination with ShrinkWrap , which is used to declaratively define a custom Java EE archive that encapsulates the test class and its dependent resources. Arquillian packages the ShrinkWrap-defined archive at runtime and deploys it to the target container. It then negotiates the execution of the test methods and captures the test results using remote communication with the server.

Finally, Arquillian undeploys the test archive. We'll go into more detail about how Arquillian works in a later chapter. So what is the target container? Some proprietary testing container that emulates the behavior of the technology Java EE? Nope, it's pluggable. All of this is made possible by a RPC-style or local, if applicable communication between the test runner and the environment, negotiating which tests are run, the execution, and communicating back the results.

This means two things for the developer:. With that in mind, let's consider where we are today with integration testing in Java EE and why an easy solution is needed. The first reason is inherent in enterprise applications. For the application to perform any sort of meaningful work, it has to pull the strings on other components, resources e. Having to write any sort of test that requires an enterprise resource database connection, entity manager, transaction, injection, etc is a non-starter because the developer has no idea what to even use.

Clearly there is a need for a simple solution, and Arquillian fills that void. But let's not forget that in order to isolate the business logic in Java EE components from infrastructure services transactions, security, etc , many of those services were pushed into declarative programming constructs.

At some point you want to make sure that the infrastructure services are applied correctly and that the business logic functions properly within that context, justifying the second reason that integration testing is important in Java EE. The reality is that you aren't really testing your component until you test it in situ.

It's all to easy to create a test that puts on a good show but doesn't provide any real guarantee that the code under test functions properly in a production environment.

Such "unit tests" can't verify that the declarative services kick in as they should. While unit tests certainly have value in quickly testing algorithms and business calculations within methods, there still need to be tests that exercise the component as a complete service. Rather than instantiating component classes in the test using Java's new operator, which is customary in a unit test, Arquillian allows you to inject the container-managed instance of the component directly into your test class or you can look it up in JNDI so that you are testing the actual component, just as it runs inside the application.

It's true, some tests can work without a full container. Let's call these "standalone" tests, whereas tests which do require a full container are called "integration" tests.

Every standalone test can also be run as an integration test, but not the other way around. While the standalone tests don't need a full container, it's also important to run them as integration tests as a final check just to make sure that there is nothing they conflict with or have side effects when run in a real container.

It might be a good strategy to make as many tests work in standalone mode as possible to ensure a quick test run, but ultimately you should consider running all of your tests in the target container. As a result, you'll likely enjoy a more robust code base. We've established that integration testing is important, but how can integration testing being accomplished without involving every class in the application? That's the benefit that ShrinkWrap brings to Arquillian.

One huge advantage ShrinkWrap brings to Arquillian is classpath control. The classpath of a test run has traditionally been a kitchen sink of all production classes and resources with the test classes and resources layered on top.

This can make the test run indeterministic, or it can just be hard to isolate test resources from the main resources. Arquillian uses ShrinkWrap to create "micro deployments" for each test, giving you fine-grained control over what you are testing and what resources are available at the time the test is executed. An archive can include classes, resources and libraries.

This not only frees you from the classpath hell that typically haunts test runners Eclipse, Maven , it also gives you the option to focus on the interaction between an subset of production classes, or to easily swap in alternative classes. Within that grouping you get the self-assembly of services provided by Java EE—the very integration which is being tested.

With the strategy defined above, where the test case is executed in the container, you should get the sense of the freedom you have to test a broad range of situations that may have seemed unattainable when you only had the primitive unit testing environment. In fact, anything you can do in an application you can now do in your test class.

A fairly common scenario is testing an EJB session bean. But that's just the beginning. Any of these resources can be injected directly into your test class using the Java EE 5 Resource annotation. Resource injections are convenient, but they are so Java EE 5. Your test class can access any bean in the ShrinkWrap-defined archive, provided the archive contains a beans.

And you can inject bean instances directly into your class using the Inject annotation, or you can inject an Instance reference to the bean, allowing you to create a bean instance when needed in the test.

Of course, you can do anything else you can do with CDI within your test as well. Another important scenario in integration testing is performing data access.


Arquillian and Wildfly: Integration test tutorial

The canonical reference for building a production grade API with Spring. Arquillian is a container-agnostic integration testing framework for Jakarta EE. Using Arquillian minimizes the burden of managing containers, deployments, framework initializations, and so on. We can focus on writing actual tests and not on bootstrapping the test environment. Then, Arquillian allows us to configure the test deployment using the Deployment annotation — on a method that returns a ShrinkWrap object. Arquillian enriches tests by providing e.


An Introduction to Arquillian Testing

This guide gets you acquainted with the Arquillian plugin for JBoss Forge. This guide assumes you have JBoss Forge setup. Installing Forge is a relatively short process. Refer to the Getting Started guide or the official Forge documentation for download and installation instructions. Before we can get started with Arquillian, we first need a project. Your new project is now created! Next, we need to create some code to test.

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