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It ma. Academic Phrasebank. Academic Phrasebank f Academic Phrasebank s Click2Go Customer Work Academic Phrasebank PD Academic phrasebank. Other phrases are listed under the more general communicative functions of academic writing.
The resource was designed primarily for academic and scientific writers who are non-native speakers of English. However, native speaker writers may still find much of the material helpful.
In fact, recent data suggests that the majority of users are native speakers of English. The phrases, and the headings under which they are listed, can be used simply to assist you in thinking about the content and organisation of your own writing, or the phrases can be incorporated into your writing where this is appropriate. In most cases, a certain amount of creativity and adaptation will be necessary when a phrase is used.
The Academic Phrasebank is not discipline specific. Nevertheless, it should be particularly useful for writers who need to report their empirical studies. The phrases are content neutral and generic in nature; in using them, therefore, you are not stealing other people's ideas and this does not constitute plagiarism. In the current PDF version, additional material, which is not phraseological, has been incorporated. These additional sections should be helpful to you as a writer.
This unit of rhetorical analysis is used as one of the main organising sub-categories of the Academic Phrasebank. Swales not only identified commonly-used moves in article introductions, but he was interested in showing the kind of language which was used to achieve the communicative purpose of each move.
Much of this language was phraseological in nature. The resource also draws upon psycholinguistic insights into how language is learnt and produced. It is now accepted that much of the language we use is phraseological in nature; that it is acquired, stored and retrieved as pre-formulated constructions Bolinger, ; Pawley and Syder, These insights began to be supported empirically as computer technology permitted the identification of recurrent phraseological patterns in very large corpora of spoken and written English using specialised software e.
Sinclair, Phrasebank recognises that there is an important phraseological dimension to academic language and attempts to make examples of this explicit. Sources of the phrases The vast majority of phrases in this resource have been taken from authentic academic sources. However, phrases from academic articles drawn from a broad spectrum of disciples have also been, and continue to be, incorporated. Where content words have been included for exemplificatory purposes, these are substitutions of the original words.
In selecting a phrase for inclusion into the Academic Phrasebank, the following questions are asked:? When is it acceptable to reuse phrases in academic writing? In a recent study Davis and Morley, , 45 academics from two British universities were surveyed to determine whether reusing phrases was a legitimate activity for academic writers, and if so, what kind of phrases could be reused. From the survey and later from in-depth interviews, the following characteristics for acceptability emerged.
A reused phrase:? These words should be substituted when the phrases are used. In the phrases below, for example, the content words in bold should be substituted:? X is a major public health problem, and the cause of X is the leading cause of death in western-industrialised countries.
The many thousands of disciplinary-specific phrases which can be found in academic communication comprise a separate category of phrases. These tend to be shorter than the generic phrases listed in Academic Phrasebank, and typically consist of noun phrases or combinations of these.
Acceptability for reusing these is determined by the extent to which they are used and understood by members of a particular academic community. Further work Development of the website content is ongoing. In addition, research is currently being carried out on the ways in which experienced and less-experienced writers make use of the Academic Phrasebank. Another project is seeking to find out more about ways in which teachers of English for academic purposes make use of this resource.
Bolinger, D. Forum Linguisticum, 1, pp. Davis, M. Reading: Garnet Education. Hopkins, A. English for Specific Purposes, 7 2 , Pawley, A. In: Richards, J. Longman: New York. Sinclair, J. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Swales, J. Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Most academic writers, however, appear to do one or more of the following in their introductions:? Some of the more common moves include:?
Note that there may be a certain amount of overlap between some of the categories under which the phrases are listed. Establishing the importance of the topic for the world or society X is a fundamental property of ….
X is fast becoming a key instrument in …. X is a common disorder characterised by …. X plays an important role in the maintenance of ….
Xs are the most potent anti-inflammatory agents known. X is a major public health problem, and the main cause of …. Xs are one of the most rapidly declining groups of insects in In the new global economy, X has become a central issue for …. Xs are one of the most widely used groups of antibacterial agents and …. X is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. X is an important component in the climate system, and plays a key role in Y.
In the history of development economics, X has been thought of as a key factor in …. Establishing the importance of the topic for the discipline A key aspect of X is …. X is a classic problem in …. A primary concern of X is …. X is at the heart of our understanding of ….
X is an increasingly important area in applied linguistics. Central to the entire discipline of X is the concept of …. X and Y have been an object of research since the s X is a major area of interest within the field of ….
The issue of X has received considerable critical attention. X has been studied by many researchers using …. One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philosophy is … Establishing the importance of the topic time frame given One of the most important events of the s was ….
Traditionally, Xs have subscribed to the belief that …. Recent developments in X have heightened the need for ….
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in …. Recent trends in X have led to a proliferation of studies that Recent developments in the field of X have led to a renewed interest in ….
Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in …. The past decade has seen the rapid development of X in many …. The past thirty years have seen increasingly rapid advances in the field of …. Over the past century there has been a dramatic increase in …. X proved an important literary genre in the early Y community. The changes experienced by Xs over the past decade remain unprecedented. Xs are one of the most widely used groups of Y and have been extensively used for ….
Synopsis of literature Previous studies have reported …. Recent evidence suggests that …. Several attempts have been made to …. Studies of X show the importance of ….
The Academic Phrasebank
The Academic Phrasebank is a general resource for academic writers. Other phrases are listed under the more general communicative functions of academic writing see the menu on the left. The resource should be particularly useful for writers who need to report their research work. The phrases, and the headings under which they are listed, can be used simply to assist you in thinking about the content and organisation of your own writing, or the phrases can be incorporated into your writing where this is appropriate.
The Academic Phrasebank: An Academic Writing Resource for Students and Researchers